Science and Technology Data 2008


Acronyms and Abbreviations


  • Canada's GERD by Major Source of Funds, 1999 to 2008
  • GERD as a Percentage of GDP, Top OECD Countries and Selected Non-OECD Countries, 2007
  • R&D Intensity at the Provincial Level, 1996, 2001 and 2006
  • Distribution of R&D Expenditures by Performing Sector, Selected OECD and Non-OECD Countries, 2007
  • Major Flows of R&D Funding in Canada, 2008


  • Federal R&D Spending by Performer Type, 2000 to 2009
  • GOVERD as a Percentage of GDP, Top OECDCountries and Selected Non-OECD Countries, 2007
  • Federal S&T Spending by Activity, 2009 Intentions
  • Major Federal S&T Departments and Agencies by Amount of Spending, 2009 Intentions
  • Federal R&D Spending by Socio-Economic Objective, 2007
  • Federal Personnel Engaged in R&D, by Occupation, Major Departments or Agencies, 2006
  • Federal Government Licensing and IP Income, 2003, 2005 and 2007


  • Canada’s BERD by Major Source of Funds, 1999 to 2008
  • BERD as a Percentage of GDP, Top OECD Countries and Selected Non-OECDCountries, 2007
  • BERD Intensity at the Provincial Level, 1996, 2001 and 2006
  • Share of Business R&D by Size Class of Firms, Selected OECD Countries, 2007
  • Business Researchers per Thousand Total Employment, Selected OECD Countries, 2007
  • Government-Financed R&D in Business, Selected OECD Countries, 1997 and 2007
  • Venture Capital Investment as a Percentage of GDP, Selected OECD Countries, 2008


  • Canada’s HERD by Major Source of Funds, 1999 to 2008
  • HERD as a Percentage of GDP, Top OECDand Selected Non-OECD Countries, 2007
  • Relative Earnings by Level of Education, SelectedOECDCountries, 2006
  • Science and Engineering Degrees as a Percentage of New Degrees, Selected OECD Countries, 2007
  • Graduation Rates at the Doctoral Level, Selected OECD Countries, 2006
  • Scientific Publications, Distribution by Field of Science, Canada and the G6, 2007
  • Selected Commercialization Output of University Research, 2003, 2005 and 2007


  • Percentage of BERD Funded by Foreign Sources, Canada, 1999 to 2008
  • Percentage of BERD Funded by Foreign Sources, OECDCountries, 2007
  • Internationally Co-Authored Scientific Articles, Selected OECDand Non-OECD Countries, 2007
  • Technology Receipts as a Percentage of GDP, Top OECD Countries, 2007
  • R&D and Turnover of Affiliates under Foreign Control, Selected OECD Countries, 2006


AAFC – Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

AECL – Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

BERD – Business enterprise expenditure on research and development

CFI – Canada Foundation for Innovation

CIDA – Canadian International Development Agency

CIHR – Canadian Institutes of Health Research

CSA – Canadian Space Agency

DND – Department of National Defence

EC – Environment Canada

F&O – Fisheries and Oceans Canada

GDP – Gross domestic product

GERD – Gross domestic expenditure on research and development

GOVERD – Government intramural expenditure on research and development

HC – Health Canada

HERD – Higher education expenditure on research and development

IC – Industry Canada

NRC – National Research Council Canada

NRCan – Natural Resources Canada

NSERC – Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

OECD – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

R&D – Research and development

RSA – Related scientific activities

S&T – Science and technology

SR&ED – Scientific Research and Experimental Development

SSHRC – Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada

STC – Statistics Canada


R&D – “Research and Development” is creative work undertaken on a systematic basis to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humankind, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

RSA – “Related Scientific Activities” that complement and extend R&D by contributing to the generation, dissemination and application of scientific and technological knowledge.

S&T – “Science and Technology” includes both R&D and RSA and refers to the broad spectrum of activities required to generate, disseminate or apply new S&T knowledge.

Scientific Publications – Publications in the fields of health, pure and applied science.

Technology Receipts – Technology receipts measure one dimension (income) from international technology transfers: licence fees, patents, purchases and royalties paid, know-how, research and technical assistance.


Science and Technology Data is published yearly by Industry Canada’s Science and Innovation Sector. This publication presents a snapshot of the state of science and technology in Canada in an accessible and convenient format.

The booklet has five sections. The first, “National,” provides a summary view of Canada’s R&D. This is followed by three sections, each covering a specific player in the national S&T system: “Government,” “Industry” and “Higher Education.” The booklet concludes with a section entitled “Canada and the World,” which describes links between Canada’s S&T activities and those in other countries around the world.

Due to the varied approaches to national collection and multilateral compilation of data, the figures used for international comparisons will often be for earlier periods than those used for domestic trends. All figures are based on the most recent, reliable data.