2007

CONTENTS

Contact Information
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Definitions
Introduction


NATIONAL

  • Canada’s GERD by Major Source of Funds, 1998 to 2007
  • GERD as a Percentage of GDP, Top OECD Countries and Selected Non-OECD Countries, 2006
  • R&D Intensity at the Provincial Level, 1995, 2000 and 2005
  • Distribution of R&D Expenditures by Performing Sector, Selected OECD and Non-OECD Countries, 2006
  • Major Flows of R&D Funding in Canada, 2007

GOVERNMENT

  • Federal R&D Spending by Performer Type, 2000 to 2007
  • GOVERD as a Percentage of GDP, Top OECD Countries and Selected Non-OECD Countries, 2006
  • Federal S&T Spending by Activity, 2007
  • Major Federal S&T Departments and Agencies by Amount of Spending, 2007
  • Federal R&D Spending by Socio-Economic Objective, 2006
  • Federal Personnel Engaged in R&D, Major Departments or Agencies, 2001, 2003 and 2005
  • Federal Government Licensing and IP Income, 2001, 2003 and 2005

INDUSTRY

  • Canada’s BERD by Major Source of Funds, 1998 to 2007
  • BERD as a Percentage of GDP, Top OECD Countries and Selected Non-OECD Countries, 2006
  • BERD Intensity at the Provincial Level, 1995, 2000 and 2005
  • Business Researchers as a Percentage of National Total, Canada and OECD, 1995 to 2005
  • Direct and Indirect Government Funding of Business R&D and Tax Incentives for R&D, Selected OECD Countries, 2005 (or Nearest Available Year)
  • Business R&D Intensity and Share of R&D Performed by Firms with 500 or More Employees, Selected OECD Countries, 2005 (or Nearest Available Year)
  • Venture Capital Investment as a Percentage of GDP, Selected OECD Countries, 2003 and 2006

HIGHER EDUCATION

  • Canada’s HERD by Major Source of Funds, 1998 to 2007
  • HERD as a Percentage of GDP, Top OECD Countries and Selected Non-OECD Countries, 2006
  • Percentage of High-Earners Among Tertiary Degree Holders, Selected OECD Countries, 2006 (or Nearest Available Year)
  • Science and Engineering Degrees as a Percentage of New Degrees, Selected OECD Countries, 2006
  • PhD Graduates in Science, Engineering and Other Fields, per Million Population, Selected OECD Countries, 2005
  • Average Relative Citations, Top 15 Countries, 2002 and 2007
  • Selected Commercialization Output of University Research, 2002, 2004 and 2006

CANADA AND THE WORLD

  • Percentage of BERD Funded by Foreign Sources, Canada, 1998 to 2007
  • Percentage of BERD Funded by Foreign Sources, Top OECD Countries, 2006
  • Co-Authored Papers in Canada, Top Collaborating Countries, 1997 to 2006
  • Technology Flows as a Percentage of GDP, Top OECD Countries, 2005
  • Share of Technology Industries in Total Exports of Manufactured Goods and Primary Products, Selected OECD Countries, 2005

CONTACT INFORMATION

Policy Branch
Science and Innovation Sector
Industry Canada
Tel.: 613-998-5646
Fax: 613-996-7887
E-mail: information@science.gc.ca

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

AAFC – Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

AECL – Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

BERD – Business enterprise expenditure on research and development

CFI – Canada Foundation for Innovation

CIDA – Canadian International Development Agency

CIHR – Canadian Institutes of Health Research

CRC – Communications Research Centre Canada

CSA – Canadian Space Agency

DND – Department of National Defence

EC – Environment Canada

F&O – Fisheries and Oceans Canada

GDP – Gross domestic product

GERD – Gross domestic expenditure on research and development

GOVERD – Government intramural expenditure on research and development

HC – Health Canada

HERD – Higher education expenditure on research and development

IC – Industry Canada

M&E – Machinery and equipment

NRC – National Research Council Canada

NRCan – Natural Resources Canada

NSERC – Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

OECD – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

R&D – Research and development

RSA – Related scientific activities

S&T – Science and technology

SSHRC – Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada

STC – Statistics Canada

DEFINITIONS

ARC – “Average of Relative Citation” is an indicator based on the number of citations received by papers over a three-year period following the publication year. To account for different citation patterns across fields and subfields of science, the citation count of a paper in a given subfield is divided by the average citation count of all papers in its subfield to obtain a relative citation count (RC). The ARC of a given entity is the average of the RC of papers belonging to it. When the ARC is above 1, an entity scores better than the world average; when it is below 1, an entity publishes papers that are cited less often than the world average.

R&D – “Research and Development” is creative work undertaken on a systematic basis to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humankind, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

RSA – “Related Scientific Activities” that complement and extend R&D by contributing to the generation, dissemination and application of scientific and technological knowledge.

S&T – “Science and Technology” includes both R&D and RSA and refers to the broad spectrum of activities required to generate, disseminate or apply new S&T knowledge.

Scientific Publications – Publications in the fields of health, pure and applied science.

INTRODUCTION

Science and Technology Data is published yearly by Industry Canada’s Science and Innovation Sector. This publication presents a snapshot of the state of science and technology in Canada in an accessible and convenient format.

The booklet has five sections. The first, “National,” provides a summary view of Canada’s R&D. This is followed by three sections, each covering a specific player in the national S&T system: “Government,” “Industry” and “Higher Education.” The booklet concludes with a section entitled “Canada and the World,” which describes links between Canada’s S&T activities and those in other countries around the world.

Due to the delays involved in the collection and dissemination of data, the figures used for domestic indicators will often be more recent than those used for international comparisons.