Science and Technology Data 2009


Acronyms and Abbreviations


  • Canada’s GERD by Major Source of Funds, 2000 to 2009
  • GERD as a Percentage of GDP, Top OECD Countries and Selected Non-OECD Countries, 2008
  • R&D Intensity by Region, Selected OECD Countries, 2007
  • Patents with Co-inventor(s) by Region, Selected OECD Countries, 2005–07
  • Major Flows of R&D Funding in Canada, 2009


  • Federal R&D Spending by Performer Type, 2001 to 2010
  • GOVERD as a Percentage of GDP, Top OECD Countries and Selected Non-OECD Countries, 2008
  • Federal S&T Spending by Activity, 2010 Intentions
  • Major Federal S&T Departments and Agencies by Amount of Spending, 2010 Intentions
  • Federal Personnel Engaged in R&D, Major Departments or Agencies, 2006, 2008 and 2010
  • Federal R&D Spending by Socio-Economic Objective, 2008
  • Federal Government Licensing and IP Income, 2004, 2006 and 2008


  • Canada’s BERD by Major Source of Funds, 2000 to 2009
  • BERD as a Percentage of GDP, Top OECD Countries and Selected Non-OECD Countries, 2008
  • BERD Intensity at the Provincial Level, 2000, 2004 and 2008
  • Direct and Indirect Government Funding of Business R&D and Tax Incentives for R&D, Selected OECD Countries, 2008
  • Investments in Fixed and Intangible Assets as a Percentage of GDP, 2006
  • Percentage of Enterprises for which Process and Product Innovations Require Changes to Business Activities, All Process or Product Innovative Enterprises, Canada, 2007 to 2009
  • Percentage of Enterprises with a Strategic Focus on New or Significantly Improved Products or Activities, All Enterprises, Canada, 2009


  • Canada’s HERD by Major Source of Funds, 2000 to 2009
  • HERD as a Percentage of GDP, Top OECD Countries and Selected Non-OECD Countries, 2008
  • Annual Tuition Fees Charged by Public Universities and Public Subsidies
    to Private Entities, Selected OECD Countries, 2007
  • Scientific Articles per Capita, Top OECD Countries, 1998 and 2008
  • Highly Cited (Top 1%) Scientific Articles by Type of Collaboration, Top Countries, 2006–08
  • Graduation Rates at the Doctoral Level, Selected OECD Countries, 2000 and 2007
  • Selected Commercialization Output of University Research, 2004, 2006 and 2008


  • R&D Expenditure of Foreign Affiliates as a Percentage of Business R&D Performed
    in the Country, Selected OECD Countries, 2007
  • Percentage of Patents with Foreign Co-inventor(s), Selected OECD Countries, 2005–07
  • Percentage of Enterprises with Activities Outside Canada, having Relocated
    or Outsourced Activities Outside Canada, 2007–09
  • Industrial R&D Expenditures, Canada and the Top Large Multinational Groups, 2009


AAFC – Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

AECL – Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

BERD – Business enterprise expenditure on research and development

CFI – Canada Foundation for Innovation

CIHR – Canadian Institutes of Health Research

CSA – Canadian Space Agency

DND – Department of National Defence

EC – Environment Canada

GDP – Gross domestic product

GERD – Gross domestic expenditure on research and development

GOVERD – Government intramural expenditure on research and development

HC – Health Canada

HERD – Higher education expenditure on research and development

IC – Industry Canada

IP – Intellectual Property

M&E– Machinery and Equipment

NRC – National Research Council Canada

NRCan – Natural Resources Canada

NSERC – Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

OECD – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

PPP – Purchasing Power Parity

R&D – Research and development

RSA – Related scientific activities

S&T – Science and technology

SSHRC – Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada

STC – Statistics Canada

TL2 – Territorial level 2


R&D – Creative work undertaken on a systematic basis to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humankind, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

RSA – Activities that complement and extend R&D by contributing to the generation, dissemination and application of scientific and technological knowledge.

S&T – “Science and Technology” includes both R&D and RSA and refers to the broad spectrum of activities required to generate, disseminate or apply new S&T knowledge.

Scientific Publications – Publications in the areas of health, pure and applied science.

Territorial level – Classification used by the OECD. Territorial level 2 (TL2) consists of 335 large regions across the OECD member countries. All the regions are defined within national borders and in most cases correspond to administrative regions. For Canada, TL2 regions represent the Canadian provinces.


Science and Technology Data is published yearly by Industry Canada’s Science and Innovation Sector. This publication presents a snapshot of the state of science and technology in Canada in an accessible and convenient format.

The booklet has five sections. The first section, “National,” provides a summary view of Canada’s R&D. This is followed by three sections, each covering a specific player in the national S&T system: “Government,” “Industry” and “Higher Education.” The booklet concludes with a section entitled “Canada and the World,” which describes links between Canada’s S&T activities and those in other countries around the world.

Due to the varied approaches to national collection and multilateral compilation of data, the figures used for international comparisons will often be for earlier periods than those used for domestic trends. All figures are based on the most recent, reliable data.