Activity Book 2: Secondary Level

The activities in this section are applicable for individuals aged 16 and up.

  1. Where were your ancestors in 1871?
  2. Why do Leaves Change Colour?
  3. Bugs in my Glove
  4. How acidic is the rain in your area?
  5. Genes for the Whole Family - Mendelian Genetics
  6. Salty Seawater Study: It's your turn to try
  7. Test your knowledge (smoking)
  8. Geotropism — Plants in Space
  9. Answer Key: Test your knowledge (smoking)

Where were your ancestors in 1871?

Statistics Canada

This activity looks at farm families in the 1870s, contrasting life in pioneer times with that of today.

What to do

  1. Read the article "Where were your ancestors in 1871?"
  2. Make up a series of questions to profile your family as well as the community 100 years ago. Research the answers, noting the contributions made to their communities by different groups.
  3. Create a family tree.
  4. Create and add terminology to a glossary.

Where were your ancestors in 1871?
By Steven Danford, Statistics Canada

Canada is a young country, but even so the roots of many Canadian families go back centuries -- millennia in the case of First Nations peoples. Members of my own family have been here, mostly in Ontario, since at least the beginning of the 19th century. My wife, a Québécoise, can trace her family back to the 17th century in Canada. And ever since the first European settlers arrived, census-takers have been knocking on their doors to count their families, livestock and crops. In the winter of 1665-66, Jean Talon, the Intendant of New France, began the first census in the colony, doing much of the enumeration himself.More recently, the first census of the newly formed Dominion of Canada took place in April 1871, counting Canadians in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario. The information, which is available to the public, opens a window for us on life in centuries gone by, one that lets us find out more about our ancestors, who they were, and how they lived. Today, the Internet enables us to connect online in minutes to sources of information that used to be buried in musty basements around the world. Genealogy has become a real armchair pastime.

It was a different world

Canada was a very different place in 1871. Victoria was Queen; John A. Macdonald was Prime Minister. In Ontario, the population of the entire province totalled 1,620,000 people. Today, just over a million people live in Ottawa-Gatineau alone. Ontario was a much more rural and agricultural province at that time, as shown by the fact that the census -- both of population and agriculture -- was conducted by the Department of Agriculture. Just over 78% of the population lived in rural areas compared with only 15% today. The fastest, most advanced form of transport was the train. Ships, horses and shank's mare were about the only other ways of travelling from place to place. That is the big picture, the overview of the census and its time. For me, the census has a much more personal face. My research into family history has given me a much better picture of those who came before me, who they were, where they came from, and how they lived.

Samuel Danford, whose parents came to Canada from England in the mid-19th century, was the first target of my research. I knew that he lived in Rawdon Township in Hastings County in Ontario, and that his wife's name was Louisa. In those days enumerators came to the door, asked the census questions and recorded the answers on the various forms, known as schedules, that they carried with them. These schedules dealt with information about the people living in the household, the location and acreages of their land, crops, animals,machinery and businesses, among other things. Census enumerators did not always spell people's names correctly, and often the person being enumerated may not have been able to read and write or, even if literate, not a very good speller. Thus, many names have several variants, like Thomson and Thompson or Fraser and Frasier.

With this basic information about Samuel and Louisa Danford, I went to the Web site of the National Archives of Canada (www.archives.ca), to the database of heads of households for the Federal Census of 1871 (Ontario Index). There were several Samuel Danfords listed, but only one in the right place -- Rawdon Township in Hastings County. Once I chose the right Danford, the database gave a few more facts from the census. Samuel Danford was 28 years old in 1871, born in Ontario of English origin, a farmer and a member of the Wesleyan Methodist church. Now, this is only a very brief outline of who my many-times grandfather was. The "reel" value of this online database is that it gives the location of the actual census schedule on microfilm -- the reel number and the page on that reel where it is located. Unfortunately, the microfilm of the 1871 Census is not online. If you live near Ottawa you can go to the National Archives to consult the microfilm. If not, it can be ordered by interlibrary loan.

The microfilm of the 1871 Census is special because it contains not only the nominal roll of the living -- information on the whole family and not just the head of the household -- but also the schedules describing the land, livestock, machinery and businesses of the people enumerated. These latter schedules have not survived for most other censuses taken in the 19th century. (The 1901 Census is the most recent from which individual records from most provinces are publicly available. Records from the Prairie provinces are available from the 1906 Census.) The microfilm of those 1871 schedules also lets you see an actual picture of the document as it was filled out.

From the microfilm, I could see that Samuel Danford was married to Louise (sic) and they had five children ranging in age from newborn to 7 years. Louisa's father Andrew Birch lived with the family, a widower according to the census return. This household of 8 is far from the 3.2 persons per family that we see in Ontario today. But in 1871, children started to help out on the farm at an early age. Samuel Danford and his family were all Wesleyan Methodists, the second largest denomination, after the Church of England, in Ontario. Then, as now, Ontario was a predominantly Christian province. As always, though, the devil is in the details. For example, the proportion of Catholics has more than doubled since 1871, from about 17% of the population to just over 34%in 2001. The non-Christian community has grown enormously, particularly in the latter quarter of the 20th century. For example, in 1871, only 13 people were reported as "Mahometan" (Muslim), compared with 352,500 in 2001. Other Eastern religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism were not represented in Ontario at all. People reporting no religious affiliation have increased from 4,650 in 1871 (0.3% of the population) to 1.8 million, or 16%, in 2001.

Samuel Danford's farm had 40.5 ha (100 acres) of land, about half of that being improved land, on Lot 12 of the 11th Concession of Rawdon Township. This lot and concession number is important to know because it gives a physical location for the farm. It is still used today in rural Ontario. The location can also lead to other sources of information. For instance, many county atlases were published in the late 1800s showing maps by lot and concession number, along with engravings of the homes of those who paid to have themshown.We can often see that spouses were from neighbouring farms. People didn't necessarily go very far to find a husband or wife in 1871. Records of purchases and sales of land can show who the buyers and sellers of a parcel of land were and how much they paid for it.

The Danford farm had 2 horses, 2 oxen, 3 milch cows, 4 other horned cattle, 8 sheep and 3 pigs. They grew varying acreages of wheat, oats, barley, rye, peas, buckwheat, potatoes,mangels and hay. All these crops are still grown in Ontario, but the 13 ha (33 acres) devoted to these crops would hardly be worth starting the tractor for today. Ontario farmers now work, on average, about 69 ha (170 acres) of cropland. In 1871 some farmers reported non-farm work, just as they do today. Another great-great grandfather, Adam Wilson, who was born in Ireland and emigrated to Ontario, owned a 20-ha(50-acre) farm, only half the area of the Danford farm. But he also owned a blacksmith forge, employing two blacksmiths who were each paid $250 per year plus room and board. They were young men around 20 years old, one born in Ontario, the other in Ireland. It was not just farmers who had crops and livestock. William Thomson, another relative, who lived in Lansdowne, in Leeds County, was enumerated as a merchant in the 1871 Census, with only 1.5 ha (3.75 acres) of orchard and gardens. Even so, he had 2 horses, 2 milch cows and 10 sheep. He grew potatoes, corn, apples, grapes and mangels. Even non-farmers grew much of their own food in those days. While Samuel and Louisa Danford were both born in Ontario, as were most Ontario residents, William Thomson and his wife Isabella were not: He was born in Montréal and she was born in the United States. In 1871, nearly 70% of Ontario residents were born in Ontario. The next largest group were born in Ireland (9.4%), England and Wales (7.7%), Scotland (5.6%), the United States (2.7%), Quebec (2.5%) and Germany (1.4%). In 1871, 27% of Ontario residents were born outside the country -- the same percentage of foreign-born Ontarians as the 2001 Census reported 130 years later.

In the 19th century, immigration was principally from the British Isles, the United States and Western Europe. Today immigrants arrive from the whole world -- including Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and the Caribbean. Many other things have changed in Ontario since 1871. Horses and oxen have long since been replaced by tractors and pickup trucks. Most of us now live in urban areas, some of which contain millions of people, whereas 130 years ago Ontario was a mostly rural and small-town province. Even Toronto, then and now the largest city in Ontario, had a population of only 56,000 people in 1871. Although the proportion of people born outside the country is unchanged, their places of birth have changed dramatically. But in spite of the differences between Ontario then and Ontario now, it is still a place where people can come to improve their lot and live in one of the best countries in the world.

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Why do Leaves Change Colour?

Natural Resources Canada

Materials

  • Green leaves
  • Wide-mouth jar or bowl
  • Rubbing alcohol
  • Spoon
  • Scissors
  • Coffee filter
  • Tape
  • Pencil

What to do

  1. Tear the leaves into small pieces and place them in a jar with rubbing alcohol.
  2. Stir and leave the mixture for five minutes.
  3. Cut a strip from the coffee filter about 5x10 cm. Tape one end to the middle of the pencil. Place the pencil on the rim of the jar with the filter hanging into the solution.
  4. The filter will soak up the solution. When the end of the filter closest to the pencil is wet, remove the filter and allow it to dry.
  5. When dry, all the colours present in the leaves will be seen on the filter paper.

Discussion

Repeat steps with fall leaves. Are the green bands visible?

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Bugs in my Glove

Canadian Space Agency

The primary objectives of this activity are:

  • To demonstrate that human hands provide a robust source of bacteria, which under suitable conditions can reproduce to form large bacterial colonies.
  • To consider techniques whereby the growth of bacteria (and other microorganisms such as moulds) can be prevented (or at least minimized).
  • To test various household disinfectants for their ability to prevent bacterial growth.

Materials

  • A pot of boiling water (Always use caution when working with boiling water. Safety goggles are recommended.).
  • A culture medium i.e. a few potato slices (or Petri dishes and a suitable Nutrient agar).
  • A small kitchen knife that can be used to slice the potatoes. (again, use caution with knives).
  • Tongs
  • Self-sealing clear plastic food storage bags, sandwich size (such as "ZipLoc" bags).
  • Sterile cotton swabs (such as Q-tips).
  • Assorted commercial disinfectants (Lysol, Comet, Vim etc.).

What to do

1. Prepare the culture medium (thin slices of potato - approximately 2 to 5mm thick is ideal). Immediately prior to use, plunge the potato slices into boiling water for about 30 seconds. This will sterilize the surface and also cause the potato cells near the surface to split open, making it easier for the bacteria to proliferate.

2. Place one slice on top of each plastic food bag. One for each culture that you wish to investigate. (Use only one swab and one potato slice for each sample).

3. Take a sample from each of the following sources:
i. the ends of the finger;
ii. under the fingernails;
iii. the palm of the hand;
iv. the back of the hand;
v. the door handle;
vi. the handle of a pencil sharpener.

4. Use a sterile cotton swab to transfer bacteria from the source to the top side of each potato slice. It helps to trace out the shape of a letter such as E or A with the swab. This will help distinguish between the growth of any airborne opportunistic bacteria that have landed on the potato slice and those that you have deliberately inoculated onto the slice.

5. Place one set of samples in a cool dark location.

6. Place a second identical set of samples in a warm location.

7. Observe and record changes each day for two to three weeks.

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How acidic is the rain in your area?

Environment Canada

Materials

  • Clean glass jars
  • Labels
  • Marker
  • Litmus paper
  • Litmus paper reference chart
  • pH level chart

What to do

1. Collect water samples from around your home and school. You may collect water from all types of sources, like rain, lakes, puddles, snow, icicles, tap water, etc. Make sure you store your samples in clean glass jars (well rinsed, without any soap residue).

2. Label each jar with:

  • the date the sample was collected
  • the source (such as, river, rain, puddle, snow)
  • where and how it was collected
  • the time of day it was collected

3. Check the pH level of each water sample. Be sure to check your samples as quickly as possible after you have collected them.

4. Record the pH levels in a chart that looks something like this:

Water samples
Date and time collectedSourceWhere the source is fromHow it was collectedpH level
         
         

Map your results: draw a map of your area and record the pH level results on the map. Be sure to write the dates beside the levels so you can compare your results later on.

Optional next step: in the next season, repeat the experiment by collecting water samples from roughly the same locations and recording your results on a chart like the first one. What changes in the pH occurred, if any?

Discussion

  • Were you surprised by the results of your experiment?
  • Were the water samples more acidic than you thought they would be or less?
  • Did certain areas have higher levels of acidity than others or were the results all roughly the same?
  • If there were variations, what do you think may have caused the differences?

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Genes for the Whole Family - Mendelian Genetics

National Research Council Canada

Before performing the activity in this unit students should be familiar with the following concepts:

  • Basic Mendelian genetics and the concept of dominant and recessive traits.
  • Punnett squares (to predict possible genetic outcomes).
  • The difference between heterozygous and homozygous genotypes

Materials

  • Single die (from a pair of dice).
  • Styrofoam cup, in which to shake the die.
  • The Genetic Game card (included in this activity).
  • Coloured pencils.
  • Lots of paper.

What to do

The Genetic Challenge

Two isolated Pacific islands are discovered to have indigenous rabbits, (a very rare species), which are on the verge of extinction. One island has only male bunnies left, the other island has only female bunnies surviving.

The problem is that the male bunnies are not smart enough to survive on their own and the females need males in order to reproduce and save the species.

You are given one of each gender. Your task is to attempt, by selective breeding, to create a generation of truly "smart" bunnies.

The bunnies, come in two genotypes, female bunnies which are smart, (a dominant trait BB), whereas, the male bunnies are not
quite as smart (a recessive trait bb).

Each is homozygous, the male has genotype bb and the female has genotype BB.

Your First Generation

To help you on your quest to save the species, the first generation of offspring has been provided. All offspring of your pair of rabbits will be heterozygous, that is, Bb or equivalently bB.

The question is, will it be possible to inbreed several generations of offspring until only homozygous BB pairs remain?

Your challenge will be to try and create a breeding pair without any recessive genes whatsoever using the toss of a die to simulate the "laws of chance".

You begin with a male and female heterozygous pair of rabbits.

The Genetic Simulation Card

Nature often acts in ways that seem to be governed by the Laws of Chance and Probability. To simulate this effect we will roll a six-sided die to determine some of the genetic outcomes of our breeding challenge.

You will need to print out a copy of the Genetic Simulation card.

The die scoring has been set up to provide a 50/50 chance of selecting either a dominant or recessive allele.

The default means that in the case of a homozygous parent you must apply the appropriate allele since there is really no choice involved.

1:

  • first shake: dominant or default
  • second shake: recessive or default
  • third shake: male
  • fourth shake: breeding fails

2:

  • first shake: dominant or default
  • second shake: recessive or default
  • third shake: male
  • fourth shake: success

3:

  • first shake: dominant or default
  • second shake: recessive or default
  • third shake: male
  • fourth shake: success

4:

  • first shake: recessive or default
  • second shake: dominant or default
  • third shake: female
  • fourth shake: success

5:

  • first shake: recessive or default
  • second shake: dominant or default
  • third shake: female
  • fourth shake: success

6:

  • first shake: recessive or default
  • second shake: dominant or default
  • third shake: female
  • fourth shake: breeding fails

Here's How It Works

  1. You can only have 3 (three) offspring per breeding pair.
  2. Use the die and the Genetic Simulation card to determine the genotype of each offspring. To "roll" the die, drop it in the styrofoam cup, cover the open top with the palm of your hand and shake the cup vigorously then look inside to determine the outcome. Keep the die in the cup at all times... don't let it fall on your desk or on the floor.
  3. Refer to the Genetic Simulation card to determine the genotype of the offspring according to the following:
    • a. First shake of the die determines the allele from the MALE parent.
    • b. Second shake of the die determines the allele from the FEMALE parent.
    • c. Third shake of the die determine the gender of the offspring.
    • d. Fourth shake of the die determines the breeding success.
  4. Roll the die four times to determine the breeding outcome for each offspring.
  5. If you produce a breeding pair then you may continue the process for successive generations.
  6. Continue until your species becomes extinct or you succeed in producing a homozygous breeding BB pair. Note: remember a homozygous breeding pair bb is doomed. They will become extinct.

Conditions

  • A given pair of bunnies can only breed once.
  • Breeding between generations is not permitted.
  • Female bunnies may have multiple litters of offspring, subject to condition number 1.

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Salty Seawater Study: It's your turn to try

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

When asked what people most commonly think about seawater, the response is likely to be that it is salty! But did you every wonder why tap water with salt added doesn't taste the same? This is due to the fact that seawater contains numerous other dissolved chemicals. Approximately 3.5% of seawater is dissolved substances, with the most common being Chloride (Cl-), Sodium (Na+), Sulfate (So42-), and Magnesium (Mg2+). This means that if the chemicals in 100kg of seawater were separated out, there would be approximately 35kg of solids. It is the combination of all of these chemicals that gives water it's salinity -measured in parts per thousand (ppt or ‰). This means that freshwater would have a salinity of 0‰ and seawater has a salinity of 35‰. There are 14 chemical elements that are present in levels higher than 1 part per million; elements with a lower concentration are classified as "trace elements".

The salinity of seawater also determines the aquatic species which are present as most animals can only survive within specific salinity limits. Salinity also affects aspects of water such as rate of evaporation and circulation; dissolved salts attract water molecules which slows its evaporation. Here are a few experiments you can try to better understand some of the important properties of seawater.

Materials

  • Salt
  • Water
  • Freezer
  • Tablespoon measure
  • Cup measure
  • Spoon for stirring
  • Five clear plastic cups (170 ml or larger)
  • One fresh egg
  • Food coloring

What to do

Experiment #1

  1. Dissolve three table-spoons of salt in one cup of water.
  2. Pour the salt solution into one of the plastic cups until the cup is about 3/4 full.
  3. Pour the same amount of fresh water into another cup and place both cups in a freezer.
  4. Check the cups every half hour for two hours.

Which solution freezes first? What has happened to the salt solution after 24 hours?

Experiment #2

  1. Dissolve three tablespoons of salt in one cup of water.
  2. Pour the salt solution into one of the plastic cups until the cup is about half full.
  3. Fill another cup about half full of fresh water, and add a few drops of food coloring.
  4. Carefully pour the colored fresh water into the cup of salt water, holding the edges of the cups together so that the fresh water flows down the inside of the cup containing the salt water.

Do the two solutions mix, or does one float on top of the other? Which solution has the greater density?

Experiment #3

  1. Pour fresh water into a plastic cup until the cup is about 3/4 full.
  2. Carefully crack a fresh egg, and gently drop the contents of the egg into the cup.
  3. If your egg is fresh, the yolk will be a firm but flexible sphere that sinks to the bottom of the cup.
  4. If your egg is not-so-fresh, the yolk will break or ooze into the water and your experiment is over!
  5. Assuming the egg yolk is still intact, add two tablespoons of salt to the water, and gently stir with a spoon.

Over the next few minutes, the salt will slowly dissolve. What has happened to the egg after ten minutes?

Discussion

The addition of salt lowers the freezing point of the water. Therefore, at 0°C the fresh water will be frozen solid while the salt solution is not. This is why salt is sometimes used to keep ice from forming on sidewalks. When water freezes, it forms crystal-like structures. When salt water freezes, only the water forms these structures; the salt is left out in unfrozen water. So as salt water freezes, the water that is not frozen becomes saltier.

After 24 hours in your freezer, the cup containing fresh water should be frozen solid (if it isn't, your freezer isn't working!). The salt solution probably contains some ice, but it is not frozen solid. It may appear slushy, and you should have no trouble sticking your finger through whatever ice is in the cup.

Salt water is denser than freshwater, so freshwater floats on top of salt water. The greater density of salt water also means that objects float more easily in salt water than in freshwater. Remember Archimedes' Principle, which says that an object in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the WEIGHT of the fluid displaced by the object. One cup of salt water weighs more than one cup of fresh water, so its buoyant force is greater. So your egg (if it was fresh) sank in freshwater, but was buoyed up by the salt water.

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Test your knowledge (smoking)

Health Canada

What to do

Answer the following questions.

1. When you smoke a cigarette, it's just like inhaling car exhaust.
a) True
b) False

2. You'll also find cyanide, formaldehyde and toilet bowl cleaner in cigarettes.
a) True
b) False

3. Tobacco can be harder to quit than heroin or cocaine.
a) True
b) False

4. In all, tobacco smoke contains about 400 different chemical compounds.
a) True
b) False

5. In Canada, 49% of teenagers don't smoke.
a) True
b) False

6. Of every 10 people who try smoking, eight get hooked.
a) True
b) False

7. If you are taking birth control pills, smoking will increase your chances for serious heart disease, stroke and high blood pressure.
a) True
b) False

8. Smoking causes early tooth decay and gum disease.
a) True
b) False

9. Deep breathing and exercise could help you quit smoking.
a) True
b) False

10. How toxic is nicotine?
a) Not toxic at all
b) Causes severe abdominal cramps and bloating in some cases
c) Only toxic if in conjunction with other substances found in tobacco products
d) Deadly in high doses

11. Red blood cells carry oxygen through your body. How much does carbon monoxide found in cigarettes reduce red blood cells' ability to perform this task?
a) By 2%
b) By 6%
c) By 12%
d) By 28%

12. How many cigarettes a year do Canadian teenagers smoke?
a) Eight million cigarettes
b) Over a billion cigarettes
c) Approximately 740 million
d) About 200 million cigarettes

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Geotropism — Plants in Space

National Research Council

Orienting Growth in Response to Gravity

On Earth, the roots of a plant always grow downwards and the stem and leave grows upwards. This is due to gravity. In space, plants do not know which way is "down", because plants do not receive any clues from gravity. Orbiting spacecraft are always in a state of freefall which gets rid of the effects of gravity so plant parts grow in all directions. In some space experiments, roots and stems have been seen to grow in the same direction.

Long-term plant growth in space may require artificial gravity to be created onboard the spacecraft. This can be done by changes in speed or direction that produces forces - like the effects of gravity - to be exerted on the plants. Continuous rotation of a plant growth chamber can produce long-term gravity-like effects.

Materials

  • Several sheets of paper towel
  • Garden seeds (beans, peas, radishes, navy beans work very well and are inexpensive!)
  • Plastic bags with seal
  • Water
  • Thumb tacks

What to do

  1. Fold the paper towel so that it will fit inside the plastic bag. Soak it thoroughly with water.
  2. Place several seeds on top of the paper towel and carefully put the paper towel inside the bag. Close the bag partially to allow some air to get in. Label the plastic bag.
  3. Attach the bag to a bulletin board being careful that the seeds stay in place between the paper towel and the plastic bag.
  4. Repeat with different types of seeds.
  5. Observe the growth of the seed over several days and record the findings.
  6. Once the roots have sprouted, turn the bag 180 degrees and attach to the bulletin board. Observe for several more days.
  7. Continue to turn the bag at different angles and record the pattern of root and stem growth.

Discussion

  • Record your observations.
  • Make sketches of the plants at different stages of growth and label diagrams.

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Answer Key: Test your knowledge (smoking)

1. When you smoke a cigarette, it's just like inhaling car exhaust.

The correct answer is a) True

That's right - the same thing that sputters out of a car's tail-pipe, carbon monoxide, is found in cigarettes, and ends up in your lungs.

2. You'll also find cyanide, formaldehyde and toilet bowl cleaner in cigarettes.

The correct answer is b) False

Sure, when you smoke, you're inhaling cyanide (a little poison anyone?) and formaldehyde (I see dead people. Dead embalmed people, that is.) but no toilet bowl cleaner.

3. Tobacco can be harder to quit than heroin or cocaine.

The correct answer is a) True

Makes you think twice before "experimenting" doesn't it?

4. In all, tobacco smoke contains about 400 different chemical compounds.

The correct answer is b) False

Four hundred? Try 4,000! How can inhaling tar, carbon monoxide, cyanide and other chemicals be safe? And here's a little bonus info - at least 50 of those chemical compounds are known to cause cancer.

5. In Canada, 49% of teenagers don't smoke.

The correct answer is b) False

We've got great news. Teen smoking is on the decline. In fact 77% of teens 15-19 today are saying "no thanks" to smoking.

6. Of every 10 people who try smoking, eight get hooked.

The correct answer is a) True

Think the number is high? Unfortunately it's true. If you start smoking, chances are the nicotine will make you want to keep at it. But why even go there?

7. If you are taking birth control pills, smoking will increase your chances for serious heart disease, stroke and high blood pressure.

The correct answer is a) True

The pill and smoking don't mix.

8. Smoking causes early tooth decay and gum disease.

The correct answer is a) True

Popping a mint will freshen your breath but it won't get rid of the other problems. Yellow teeth, rotting and smelly gum disease are just a few. Butt out and smile.

9. Deep breathing and exercise could help you quit smoking.

The correct answer is a) True

A lot of people who smoke say they do it because they're stressed. But actually, smoking just makes it worse. Your heart races and your breathing gets shallow after taking a puff or two. Try the deep breathing test to see if smoking really does help you relax. Take your pulse (count the beats per minute), have a cigarette and then take your pulse again. Still think smoking helps you relax? Concentrate on deep breathing to relax instead. Or get outside and get active. A sure-fire way to feel great.

10. How toxic is nicotine?

The correct answer is d) Deadly in high doses

It's poison, people. Most people don't realize that nicotine is actually deadly. In fact pure nicotine can kill you. For every cigarette a person smokes, he or she likely inhales about 3mg of nicotine. Fortunately, the body quickly breaks down this nicotine to keep it from building to a fatal dose.

11. Red blood cells carry oxygen through your body. How much does carbon monoxide found in cigarettes reduce red blood cells' ability to perform this task?

The correct answer is c) By 12%

Wonder why smokers get winded going up a flight of stairs? Carbon monoxide in cigarettes reduces up to 12% the amount of oxygen normally carried by red blood cells. Less oxygen makes breathing and physical activity difficult - and even though 12% might not seem like a lot, it's certainly enough to make you breathe harder when climbing stairs or going for a run. Smoking also raises blood pressure 10 to 15 percent, increasing the risk of stroke.

12. How many cigarettes a year do Canadian teenagers smoke?

The correct answer is b) Over a billion cigarettes

Teenagers smoke more than 1.6 billion cigarettes each year - resulting in retail sales worth more than $330 million. Just think about what else could be done with that money.

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