Activity Book 3: Intermediate Level

The activities in this section are applicable for individuals aged 11-15.

Please note that some of the activities in this section may require adult supervision and assistance.

  1. Pathways and Pitfalls!
  2. Candy Chromatography
  3. HAZMAT Team to the Rescue: Simple Machines Challenge
  4. Swirling Milk
  5. Colour Drops
  6. Environment Week Quiz
  7. Important Decisions Don't Just Happen
  8. Apple Ocean
  9. Where are we from?
  10. Immigration and Citizenship
  11. Simulation
  12. Statistics Canada Terms Crossword
  13. Sudoku
  14. Answer Key: Environment Week Quiz
  15. Answer Key: Important Decisions Don't Just Happen
  16. Answer Key: Where are we from?
  17. Answer Key: Simulation
  18. Answer Key: Statistics Canada Terms Crossword
  19. Answer Key: Sudoku

Pathways and Pitfalls!

Natural Resources Canada

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Candy Chromatography

National Research Council Canada

Ever wondered why candies are different colours? Many candies contain coloured dyes. To see the colours used in Smarties® or M&Ms® candies, you can dissolve the dyes out of the candies using a technique called chromatography.

Materials:

  • M&M® or Smarties® candies (1 of each colour)
  • coffee filter paper
  • cotton swabs
  • water

Procedure:

  1. Place the coffee filter paper upside down on a table top.
  2. Place a candy in the centre of the paper
  3. Dip a cotton swab into the water and hold it above the candy allowing a little water to drip onto the candy.
  4. Repeat this fairly slowly until the candy is quite wet and the circle of water on the blotting paper is about 5 cm across.
  5. In a little while you should be able to see rings of different colours around the candy.

How does it work?

The colour in the sugar coating of the candy shell dissolves in the water. The water is drawn out through the paper by capillary action and moves in a growing circle. The different inks which make up the colour move at different speeds and so they are separated. This process is called chromatography. (The word "chromatography" is derived from two Greek words: "chroma" meaning colour and "graphein" to write.)

Using this process you can see some candies have just one dye while others are made up of more than one dye. Note that once the colour and sugar has been removed from the shell all the candies are the same colour underneath.

Try the experiment again with a different type of candies, magic markers, or other coloured substances such as food colouring and Kool-Aid.

Note: Activity adapted from multiple sources by NRC scientist Dr. Mike Day.

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HAZMAT Team to the Rescue: Simple Machines Challenge

What Does HAZMAT Mean?

A hazardous material (or HAZMAT) is any solid, liquid or gas that can harm people, animals, plants, objects or the environment. In Canada, these types of materials are more commonly called Dangerous Goods. Hazardous materials or dangerous goods may be explosive, corrosive, toxic, radioactive, flammable or biohazardous.

Handling Hazardous Materials Needs a Soft Touch

In order to minimize the risks associated with hazardous materials, they must be safely used, stored, transported and disposed. Organizations which regularly deal with hazardous materials often have "HAZMAT teams," which are groups of people specifically trained to deal with accidents, spills and transportation of hazardous materials. These teams often train at specially designed locations and are required to wear special clothing and equipment such as gloves, suits, goggles, visors, etc.

Lifting Up and Moving Out

As you can imagine, moving hazardous materials from place to place is a delicate job. Today, lifting and moving large, heavy containers of hazardous materials is usually done with cranes or forklifts, but in the past, these machines would not have been available. Before the invention of complex machines, people used what are known as "simple machines." Simple machines help to make our work easier by enabling us to use less mechanical effort to move objects.

Six types of simple machines are the wedge, inclined plane, screw, lever, pulley and wheel & axle. In this challenge, students will apply their knowledge of rollers, wheels & axles, levers, inclined planes and pulleys in lifting and moving objects.

Before performing this challenge, students should be familiar with:

  • The function of various types of simple machines
  • Designing and building
  • Working collaboratively

Investigation

Learning Objectives:

Students will:

  • Make a written plan, requiring the use of one or more simple machines, to lift and move heavy load
  • Apply understanding of simple machines by lifting and moving a heavy load
  • Select and use materials to accomplish a given task
  • Communicate about how simple machines were used to move the load
  • Work collaboratively and effectively in a small group to solve a practical problem

Teaching Strategies:

  • Creating and carrying out a plan
  • Applying understanding of simple machines
  • Working collaboratively in small groups
  • Communicating results

In this challenge students will work in groups of four. Substitute your own parameters for the words in parentheses and then print the challenge, materials, observations and conclusions below for the students.

The HAZMAT Simple Machines Challenge

Your HAZMAT team has been contacted to move a large plastic open tub (e.g., 20 L Rubbermaid® tote, etc.) filled with highly corrosive liquid (water) that was found dumped in a sensitive natural area (classroom, gym, etc.). Your team must move the tub from where it was found to your containment truck (e.g., taped off area several metres away from where tub starts). The tub is too heavy to be lifted manually by your team, so you will need to use your knowledge of simple machines to carefully lift and move the tub of water without spilling it.

As any spilled liquid could contaminate the environment, the tub may not be dragged along the ground. Your group will have access to the materials which were in your containment truck as well as any other simple machines that their site supervisor (the teacher) will allow your group to use. Each HAZMAT team will also be required to wear protective safety devices (work gloves, goggles, lab coats, etc.) during the HAZMAT Challenge.

HAZMAT teams must have highly qualified members, each having a primary responsibility but all working together to achieve the best possible results. Each team will include:

  • Designer: responsible for creating the design, obtaining the authorization to proceed from the site supervisor, and recording the 'as-built' drawing.
  • Materials Manager: responsible for choosing which materials to use from the containment truck as well as having any additional materials authorized by the site supervisor.
  • Constructor-Builder: in collaboration with all team members, the Constructor assembles the moving system according to the drawing plan, suggests modifications to team and moves the hazardous waste container.
  • Communication Specialist: spokesperson for the team who presents the project to others.

Materials in the HAZMAT Truck

  1. Metre sticks
  2. Snow or other shovels
  3. Masking tape
  4. Wooden shims
  5. Hammers and nails
  6. 2L pop bottles
  7. Large apple juice cans
  8. Broom handles
  9. Wooden rolling pins
  10. Rope
  11. Clothesline pulleys
  12. Wood

Before the challenge, each team will need to create a written outline of how they plan to lift and move the tub of water. The plan will need to be clear and well-developed and should include materials, procedures and labelled diagrams of the planned set-up.

Observations and Conclusions

After the challenge, the Communications Specialist will lead the group in creating a poster which will explain through drawings and text the successful strategy that the group used, so that other HAZMAT teams could replicate their method. The poster will be presented orally to the other HAZMAT teams by the communication specialist.

Discussion

Do you know which chemical elements are hazardous? Explore the interactive Periodic Table to find five.

Extended Activities

  1. Challenge the students to move the bin over additional obstacles, such as up an inclined plane or onto a step, across grass or over a gap.
  2. Have the students learn about the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS), which is Canada's national hazard communication standard. WHMIS is responsible for the labelling of hazardous products, as well as worker and workplace education and training programs.
  3. Have the students research the properties of various hazardous materials (e.g., corrosives, flammable liquids and gases, explosives, radioactive materials, etc.).
  4. Using the internet, have the students find a company, government agency, etc. which has a HAZMAT team. If possible, have the students contact the team to learn more about what they do.

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Swirling Milk

National Research Council Canada

Materials:

  • 1 flat bowl or aluminium pie pan - about 18cm diameter and at least 3cm deep
  • Milk (enough to cover the bottom of the container about 2cm deep)
  • Several different colours of food colouring (red, yellow, blue, and green work well)
  • Liquid dishwashing detergent
  • Toothpicks

Procedure:

  1. Pour about 2cm of milk into the bowl. (use one bowl for each 4-6 students, if possible).
  2. Keep back from the table so that the milk becomes motionless.
  3. Imagine the bowl as the face of a clock, with 12 o'clock at the top, 3 o'clock to the right, 6 o'clock at the bottom, and 9 o'clock to the left.
  4. Drop 2 drops of each food colour carefully into the milk near the outside edge of the bowl, one colour at 12 o'clock, the second colour at 3 o'clock, the third colour at 6 o'clock, and the fourth colour at 9 o'clock, in any order. There should be one spot each of red, yellow, blue, and green. Do not bump the table or do anything else to mix the colours.
  5. Take a toothpick and dip the one end into the dishwashing detergent.
  6. Touch the detergent end of the toothpick into the middle of the bowl of milk, and hold it there for at least 30 seconds. Observe carefully. Do the colours mix initially, or just swirl in their own section of the bowl? Do not use the toothpick to stir the milk.
  7. Lift the toothpick, and touch it to the milk in the center of one of the colours. Observe carefully.
  8. Touch the toothpick into other areas of the milk, dipping it first into the detergent again if necessary. Observe carefully.
  9. When you are certain that you are finished with the activity, dispose of the milk down the drain.

Observations:

Initially, the food colours swirl in different patterns across and under the surface of the milk for several minutes. Note that the colours do not actually mix with each other, but continue in separate swirling patterns. The time of swirling may depend on the temperature of the milk and amount of dishwashing liquid you use. You can repeat step 6 to reactivate the swirling motion if needed. Moving the toothpick to a new spot can later result in mixing of the various colours.

How does it work?

The reason for the swirling motion of the food colours is caused by changes in surface tension of the milk after adding the drop of liquid dishwashing detergent. Detergent molecules have a partially charged polar end and an uncharged nonpolar end. Thus, they can bind weakly to either polar or nonpolar neighbouring molecules. When detergent is introduced into the center of the bowl, it may bind weakly to the water in the milk, decreasing its surface tension so that it flows more easily, and indirectly setting up the swirling motion.

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Colour Drops

National Research Council Canada

Watch the ways in which food colouring can move through different liquids.

Materials:

  • Plastics cups
  • Water
  • Salt
  • Seltzer water
  • Food colouring

Procedure:

  1. Fill two plastic cups 2/3 full with water.
  2. Add 1 drop of food colouring to the first cup and immediately observe what happens.
  3. Add the salt to the second cup and stir until the salt dissolves. Add one drop of food colouring to this cup and immediately observe.
  4. Fill the third cup 2/3 full with seltzer water, add 1 drop of food colouring and observe.

Observations:

In plain water the drop slowly swirls and moves throughout. In salt water, the drop starts to sink and then rises. In seltzer water, the drop quickly disperses and evenly colours the liquid.

How does it work?

Putting food colouring in plain water does not have a dramatic effect other than that the colour becomes more pale (diluted). The gas bubbles in the seltzer water act to speed things up, like an invisible stirring spoon. The drop of food colouring is quickly broken up and carried to all parts of the liquid. Salt water is more dense than plain water. This means that anything less dense will float on the top, including the food colouring (which is a drop of coloured water).

Note: Activity adapted from multiple sources by NRC scientist Dr. Mike Day.

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Environment Week Quiz

Environment Canada

1. Planting trees in your neighbourhood is one of the best things you can do for the local environment and for the planet because:
a. They produce oxygen
b. They remove carbon dioxide and contaminants from the air
c. They provide habitat for birds and other wildlife
d. All of the above

2. Choosing ENERGY STAR-qualified products when replacing old equipment can cut your household energy bills by:
a. Approximately 10%
b. Approximately 20%
c. Approximately 30%
d. Approximately 40%

3. Humans use at least 40,000 species of plants and animals every day for their different needs.
a. True
b. False

4. Which of the following species are at risk in Canada?
a. Prairie-Chicken
b. Grizzly Bear
c. Atlantic Walrus
d. All of the above

5. Biodiversity only includes the number of different species of plants, animals and microorganisms in existence.
a. True
b. False

6. The way to guarantee that a plugged-in electronic device is not consuming power is to:
a. Place device on standby
b. Turn device off
c. Unplug device from the outlet
d. If device is fully charged, then it will not consume any more energy

7. Ocean ecosystems are able to:
a. Take sewage and recycle it into nutrients
b. Scrub toxins out of the water
c. Turn carbon dioxide into food and oxygen
d. All of the above

8. It is better to have a larger, energy-efficient refrigerator than a smaller refrigerator of the same model.
a. True
b. False

9. If every driver of a passenger car or small truck avoided idling by three minutes a day, collectively over the year, we would save:
a. 630 million liters of fuel
b. Over 1.4 million tones of GHG emissions
c. $630 million annually in fuel costs
d. All of the above

10. Which of the following residential waste will green bins NOT turn into compost?
a. Plastics
b. Yard waste
c. Food soiled paper products
d. Food scraps

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Important Decisions Don't Just Happen

Student exercise
1. Find the four best neighbourhoods for the playground.
2. Find the four best neighbourhoods for the seniors' centre.
3. Find the two best neighbourhoods for the medical centre by using the results from request numbers one
and two.
4. Find the five best neighbourhoods for the bus route.
a. Once your group decides which neighbourhoods the first service should be located in, mark them
on the census grid map. Do this by filling in the squares for each neighbourhood with the colour
for the service. (The colour for each service is shown in the legend.) Neighbourhood 1, one of the
choices for locating the playground, has already been marked for you. You may go ahead and colour
it in with yellow. Continue to find the next best neighbourhoods for a playground and the senior's
centre. (It is possible to have more than one service located in the same neighbourhood.)
b. After you have correctly identified the best neighbourhoods for the playground and the
senior's centre, the best place for the medical centre should be automatically evident. (Hint* the
neighbourhoods selected for the playground and the seniors' centre will overlap.) Indicate the best
neighbourhoods for the medical centre by circling the two neighbourhoods with the appropriate
colour.
c. The final task is to identify the five best neighbourhoods for the bus route using Handout 1 Table
1 and Handout 2. The bus route should accommodate the neighbourhoods with the largest
populations.
The following exercise asks you to make some decisions:
Data-R-Us has assigned you four client requests. Each request is looking for data which will help to locate the most
appropriate neighbourhoods in Maple for specific services.
1. The first request is from the town of Maple community volunteer league, which has raised funds to build a
new playground.
2. The second request is from the Maple Town Council, which has designated money from the city budget, to
build a seniors' centre.
3. The third request comes from the Get Well Medical Clinic. The primary users of the medical clinic are
children and seniors. Get Well would like to expand into Maple and is looking for a location close to large
numbers of children and seniors.
4. The fourth request comes from the town of Maple's Department of Public Transportation. They are looking
to start a new bus route in an area where there will be a demand for public transportation.

Consider this:
Imagine that you have looked at the census report on the town of Maple and have picked the data that best
describe the people who will use the services. Table 1 is the result of this effort. Take a moment to study the table.
Table 1
Request
number Service Who needs
the service Census Data
1 playground children people - 15 years and under
2 seniors' centre seniors people - 65 years and over
3 medical centre
children and
seniors
people - 15 years and under people -
65 years and over
4 new bus route everyone total population

Handout 2: Census data
Imagine that you have looked at the census report on Maple and have picked the data that shows the population in
each neighbourhood based on their age. Table 2 is the result of this effort.
Table 2: Population by neighbourhood
Neighborhood People - 15 years and
under
People -65 years and
over Total population
1 175 79 365
2 170 190 450
3 5 250 312
4 95 145 520
5 171 94 470
6 150 201 440
7 65 220 335
8 84 98 522
9 20 100 207
10 27 5 171
11 90 78 568
12 75 43 608
13 17 76 192
14 15 22 169
15 120 11 632
16 20 1 163

Handout 3: Census grid map of Maple
The town is divided into 16 neighbourhoods which appear on the grid map below.
Census map of Maple
1. Find the four best neighbourhoods for the playground.
2. Find the four best neighbourhoods for the seniors' centre.
3. Find the two best neighbourhoods for the medical centre by using the results from request numbers one
and two.
4. Find the five best neighbourhoods for the bus route.
a. Once your group decides which neighbourhoods the first service should be located in, mark them
on the census grid map. Do this by filling in the squares for each neighbourhood with the colour
for the service. (The colour for each service is shown in the legend.) Neighbourhood 1, one of the
choices for locating the playground, has already been marked for you. You may go ahead and colour
it in with yellow. Continue to find the next best neighbourhoods for a playground and the senior's
centre. (It is possible to have more than one service located in the same neighbourhood.)
b. After you have correctly identified the best neighbourhoods for the playground and the
senior's centre, the best place for the medical centre should be automatically evident. (Hint* the
neighbourhoods selected for the playground and the senior's centre will overlap.) Indicate the best
neighbourhoods for the medical centre by circling the two neighbourhoods with the appropriate
colour.
c. The final task is to identify the five best neighbourhoods for the bus route using Handout 1 Table
1 and Handout 2. The bus route should accommodate the neighbourhoods with the largest
populations.

 

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Apple Ocean

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Objectives

To learn about the small percentage of the ocean that is productive, providing food and shelter for a variety of plants, and people.

Activities

An apple will be cut up to illustrate what part of the Earth is land, what part is ocean, and what proportion is the most productive part of the ocean.

Background

All the water in the world today was here when the Earth was formed. The water of the Earth has remained unchanged
in quantity throughout the four or five billion years of its existence. About 97% of the water on the Earth is in the ocean.

  • Only a small percentage of the ocean is productive. These productive areas are the coastal regions.
  • Canada has many different coastal ecosystems including rocky shores, estuaries, salt marshes, sandy beaches, barrier islands, cliffs and fjords, tidal mud flats, coastal bogs, bays, and inlets.
  • Estuaries, salt marshes, and rocky shores are very productive environments.
  • These areas provide sources of food for wildlife and humans, and act as nurseries for many commercial fish species.

Procedures

Looking at the land part of our planet:

  1. Cut your apple into four equal pieces. Set three of the pieces aside for later use. These represent the three-quarters of the Earth that is covered with ocean. Mark them 'OCEAN.' The remaining quarter represents the land, or areas not covered by ocean.
  2. Cut this one-quarter into two equal pieces. One piece represents all the land that is too dry, too wet, or too hot for people. This is uninhabitable land-mountains, deserts.... The other piece, one-eighth of the Earth's surface, is where people can live.
  3. Cut this one-eighth piece into four pieces and set aside three of them. The remaining piece represents the portion of the habitable land in which we are able to grow food.
  4. Take this 1/32 piece and cut off a thin slice. This tiny slice represents 3/100 of 1% of the Earth's surface. All of our drinkable water comes from this area. What is the significance of this or what does this suggest to you?

Now look at the ocean part of our planet:

  1. Take one of the three 'ocean' pieces and cut it in half. This piece, an eighth of the world's surface, represents the productive coastal zones of the oceans.
  2. Cut this one-eighth piece into four equal parts. One of these represents the productive area along the Atlantic coast of North America. What does this tell you about the amount of productive aquatic area in the world?
  3. Eat the apple.

Activity Materials

Materials: Knives, apples, non-toxic markers

Location: Indoors

Time required: 30 Minutes

Minimum people required: 1

Subjects: Science, mathematics (fractions), social studies

Grade level: 6 And up

Key words: Salt marshes, saltwater, estuaries, rocky shores, productivity

(Apple Ocean activity modified from the Huntsman Marine Science Centre )

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Where are we from?

Statistics Canada

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Immigration and Citizenship

Statistics Canada

 

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Simulation

Canadian Space Agency

Divide the class into teams of two or three students. Each team will generate a hypothetical map of geographical ground features in an imaginary country. Each team must keep its map zones secret from all the other classroom teams. A sample map is shown in Figure 12.

Teams are then allowed to see each other's maps ONLY under a source of red light.

Materials

  • A clean sheet of white paper.
  • A red lamp or flashlight with a red filter over the lens.
  • Assorted coloured markers.

Procedure

  1. Create a simulated map of an imaginary country by drawing a border outline of the country on the page. Use as much of the page as possible.
  2. Using the coloured markers, create the following zones, using a different colour for each zone.
    • Hardwood forests
    • Softwood forests
    • Mountains
    • Deserts
    • Farmland
    • Rivers
    • Dense urban areas
    • Wetlands
    • Invent your own
  3. Keep your map secret. Do not let other students see your map under white light. They should only be allowed to view it under red light.
  4. Label your map with a zone legend and number each zone (see Figure 12 for a sample map, but do not use the same colour scheme).
  5. Challenge other teams to match the "ground truth" legend with numbered zones on your map while viewing the map under red light.

Analysis

Determining the ground features requires some method of matching up the shades of the reflected radiation (red light on your map and microwaves for RADARSAT-2) with known ground features. The alignment of features on the satellite image with the features on the ground requires a "ground truth" assessment that involves scientists on the ground and the scientists who are doing the images processing.

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Statistics Canada Terms Crossword

Statistics Canada

Across:
3 Inflation(3).
5 Country.
6 A multidimensional database.
8 Production and consumption of goods and services.
10 Census metropolitan area (abbr.)
11 With 15 across, observations over _____.
14 Abbreviation for dissemination area, the smallest standard geographic area for which census data are disseminated.
15 See 11 across.
16 There are ten of these in Canada.
18 Part of the Environment.
21 A dynamic tool for the education community.
24 Census tract (abbr.)
25 Canada's central statistical agency (2).
27 Geographic area.
28 A type of rounding.
30 Well-being.
Down :
1 Criminal System.
2 A decennial census occurs every ____ years.
3 Free information for all Canadian communities (2).
4 Survey of the entire population.
7 Census agglomeration (abbr.)
9 Metropolitan influenced zone (abbr.)
10 Census subdivision (abbr.)
12 Tally.
13 A quinquennial census takes place every ____ years.
17 The land's features.
19 Statistics Canada's official release bulletin.
20 The arithmetic average of a set of numbers.
22 Nation.
23 Work.
24 Census division (abbr.)
26 A method of collect information.
29 Facts or figures from which conclusions can be drawn.

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Sudoku

Natural Resources Canada

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Answer Key: Environment Week Quiz

1. Planting trees in your neighbourhood is one of the best things you can do for the local environment and for the planet because:

d. All of the above

Trees are like the lungs of the planet. They breathe in carbon dioxide and breathe out oxygen. Additionally, they provide habitat for birds and other wildlife. But that's not all! Trees help reduce ozone levels in urban areas. They absorb sound and reduce noise pollution. Planting trees can also help cool your home in the summer. Trees are essential to the planet and to humans, so plant a tree and reap in the many benefits!

2. Choosing ENERGY STAR-qualified products when replacing old equipment can cut your household energy bills by:

c. Approximately 30%

The more energy efficient a product is, the less it costs to operate - an important consideration for consumers in these days of rising energy costs. Choosing ENERGY STAR qualified products when replacing old equipment can cut household energy bills by about 30 percent.

3. Humans use at least 40,000 species of plants and animals every day for their different needs.

a. True

We rely on biodiversity for many things, including food, medicine, clothing and shelter. Some of the ways biodiversity is lost are through:

  • Habitat destruction
  • Introduced species
  • Pollution
  • Population growth
  • Over-consumption

4. Which of the following species are at risk in Canada?

d. All of the above

According to the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, there are currently 487 plant and animal species at risk in Canada. The Prairie-Chicken, Grizzly Bear and Atlantic Walrus are just a few examples.

5. Biodiversity only includes the number of different species of plants, animals and microorganisms in existence.

b. False

Biodiversity is most often understood as the number of different species of plants, animals and microorganisms in existence. However, biodiversity also includes the specific genetic variations and traits within species, as well as the collection of these species within ecosystems.

6. The way to guarantee that a plugged-in electronic device is not consuming power is to:

c. Unplug device from the outlet

A growing number of household electrical devices are designed to draw power 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Even when turned "off," these appliances and home electronics continue to use electricity to operate features, such as clocks, timers and touch pads, or to receive signals from remote controls. Battery chargers (used by products such as cordless phones) or external power supplies (used by products such as laptops) also draw power when they are plugged in - even if the device they power is fully charged or disconnected. Some electronics (such as television set-top boxes) are always awake, waiting to receive information. If unplugging the device from the outlet is not convenient, you can use a power bar and turn it off when not
using the appliances.

7. Ocean ecosystems are able to:

d. All of the above

Ecosystems are incredibly productive and efficient--when there is sufficient biodiversity. Each form of life works together with the surrounding environment to help recycle waste, maintain the ecosystem, and provide services that others--including humans--use and benefit from.

8. It is better to have a larger, energy-efficient refrigerator than a smaller refrigerator of the same model.

a. True

A model that is too big wastes money and energy, and one that is too small could waste energy if it becomes overcrowded with food and drinks. It is better to have a larger, energy-efficient refrigerator than a smaller inefficient model.

9. If every driver of a passenger car or small truck avoided idling by three minutes a day, collectively over the year, we would save:

d. All of the above

Reducing idling is easy and has real environmental, health and financial benefits for drivers. Most of us are guilty of idling. So shut off your engine the next time you are in the drive-through lane or waiting to pick someone up. By reducing idling, you can save money on gas, and improve the quality of air you breathe!

10. Which of the following residential waste will green bins NOT turn into compost?

a. Plastics

Unless the plastic is specially designed to decompose in the soil, such materials can last a very long time because the chemical bonds that hold the molecules together are often stronger than nature's power to take them apart. This means that soil micro-organisms that can easily attack and decompose wood and other formerly living materials cannot break the various kinds of strong bonds that are common to most plastics. If you must use disposable bags, prefer paper ones.

 

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Answer Key: Important Decisions Don't Just Happen

Overview
This activity gives students hands-on experience with census data, introduces them to data for small geographic
areas, refines decision-making skills and demonstrates some of the actual uses of information collected by the
census.
Duration: 1-2 class periods
Note: See the Teacher's Guide (http://census2011.gc.ca/ccr02/ccr02a/ccr02a_010-eng.htm) for general
background on the census and census vocabulary.
Learning objectives
- Interpret a statistical table and a grid map.
- Sort and rank numeric values.
- Graphically display information on a grid map.
- Name at least one type of information collected in a census.
Vocabulary
census, census data, grid map
Materials
1. Handout 1: Important decisions don't just happen!
2. Handout 2: Census data -- Table 2: Population by neighbourhood. (Optional to make an overhead
rather than pass out individual copies.)
3. Handout 3: Census grid map of Maple and "Student exercise" instructions. (You may wish to
make an overhead of this handout so that you can use it when explaining the exercise and when reviewing
the answers with the class.)
4. Coloured pencils or markers (not included).
Getting started
Ask your students to imagine that they work for a company called Data-R-Us, which provides statistical data to the
public. Data-R-Us will be looking at statistical data for a town called Maple, a community where 75% of the families
have children younger than six years of age. What special concerns do they think the residents of this community
have?
Ask your students to brainstorm ideas for the kinds of special services a town like Maple should offer. The answers
will vary but will probably include schools, daycare centres, playgrounds, libraries, sports complexes and health
centres.

Have students explain their recommendations. Ask what factors influenced their decisions. Did they consider the
number of families with young children?
Share with the students, that in today's world, millions of dollars can be lost on a guess. That's why people need facts
to make decisions. For example, retail businesses use data to help choose new locations or to add new products and
they often turn to data that have been gathered by the census.
1. Explain to the students that real-life decisions require the support of this type of statistical information. The
Canadian census is an important source of current statistical data and it is conducted by Statistics Canada
every five years. The next census will take place in May 2011.
Allot time to discuss the upcoming census with the class and how census data are used everyday in our
communities. Census data are used at the local, provincial and federal government levels as well as by
community organizations, businesses and individuals. (See "Who uses census data?" in the Teacher's Guide.)
2. Tell the students that, as employees of Data-R-Us, they are going to complete four requests that have come
in from the town of Maple. They will use the statistical data provided to give their recommendations to the
clients.
Teacher instructions
1. Distribute Handout 1. Explain to the students that they are going to be researchers at Data-R-Us. Their task
will be to select the most appropriate neighbourhoods, in the fictional town of Maple, for new community
services. Read Handout 1 aloud (or have student volunteers read it for you) and discuss Table 1.
2. This exercise lends itself to group work. Divide the class into groups of three to five students and tell them
that they will be asked to work together to determine where to locate the services on a map.
3. Distribute Handout 2 and discuss Table 2. Column 1 lists each neighbourhood by number; column 2 the
population aged 15 years and under; column 3 lists the population aged 65 years and over; and column
4 lists the total population including people who are older than 15 and younger than 65. To demonstrate
how to interpret the data presented in Handout 2 Table 2, discuss the following with the class: The largest
number of people 15 years of age and younger is in neighbourhood 1. Also in this neighbourhood you
will see that there are more children than seniors (people - 65 years and over). Based on this information,
neighbourhood 1 will be a neighbourhood to consider for a playground.
4. Students will use Handout 1 Table 1 and Handout 2 Table 2 to decide on the best neighbourhoods for
each service. This will be determined by finding neighbourhoods with the largest number of people who
need the service. For example, for the playground, they will choose the neighbourhoods with the greatest
number of children.
5. Distribute Handout 3 to each group or to each student. This handout is a grid map of Maple where each
neighbourhood is identified by a number. It also contains the specific instructions the students should
follow to complete the exercise -- under the title "Student exercise."

Table 2: Population by neighbourhood
Neighborhood People - 15 years and
under
People -65 years and
over Total population
1 175 * 79 365
2 170 * 190 * 450
3 5 250 * 312
4 95 145 520 *
5 171 * 94 470
6 150 * 201 * 440
7 65 220 * 335
8 84 98 522 *
9 20 100 207
10 27 5 171
11 90 78 568 *
12 75 43 608 *
13 17 76 192
14 15 22 169
15 120 11 632 *
16 20 1 163
* largest number of people in each category

Census map of Maple

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Answer Key: Where are we from?

Overview
This activity makes students aware of the countries in which people who immigrate to Canada are born. Students
will gain an understanding of the multicultural nature of Canadaian society by examining the cultural diversity
present within their classroom.
Duration: 1-2 class periods. As an enrichment exercise, they can look at how immigrants contribute to our society.
Note: See the Teacher's Guide for general background on the census and census vocabulary.
Learning objectives
- Develop an awareness of the countries in which people who immigrate to Canada are born.
- Help students locate their country of birth on a world map.
- Explore / express personal experiences of immigration to Canada through pictures or stories.
- Recognise contributions that immigrants have made and continue to make to Canadian society.
Vocabulary
diversity, immigrate, immigration, immigration source areas, place of birth
Materials
- Teacher's Guide (http://census2011.gc.ca/ccr02/ccr02a/ccr02a_010-eng.htm)
- Handout 1: Immigration source areas
- Handout 2: Immigrant population by co
- Handout 3: How immigrants contribute to Canada
Getting started
Using the background information provided in the Teacher's Guide, tell students about the census and let them
know that Canada's next census takes place May 2011. Explain that immigration information is used to provide
services for new immigrants Canada.

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Answer Key: Simulation

Objective
To determine the characteristics of a surface (in this case colour) when the surface is illuminated by monochromatic
radiation and by inference understand how "ground truth" information is used to analyze RadarSat2 images.
Overview
Viewing objects with reflected white light is not the best simulation of the view that RADARSAT-2 "sees" when it
illuminates the earth with monochromatic microwaves. To get an idea of how RADARSAT-2 sees the world, try this
simulation.
This simulation provides an optical analogy of the process that RADARSAT-2 scientists use to help them interpret
monochromatic microwave radar images.
Extension activity
Instead of using coloured zones on the map, substitute various grades (coarseness) of sand paper to investigate how
the surface texture affects the reflective properties of monochromatic radiation. What effect (if any) does the angle
of the incidence have on the intensity of the reflected radiation?

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Answer Key: Statistics Canada Terms Crossword

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Answer Key: Sudoku

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