Activity Book 7: Secondary Level

Best suited for ages 16+

Table of Contents

  1. Atomic Energy Math
  2. Investigation: Determining the Best Protection from UV
  3. Tsunami Quiz
  4. Answer Key

Atomic Energy Math

National Research Council Canada

Complete the math problems using atomic numbers.

a. Cl + O + Ne = __________
b. H + Ac + K = ___________
c. K + N + I + Fe = __________
d. Sn + O + B = _____________

Complete the math problems using atomic mass (rounded to the nearest one).

e. H + He + Li = __________
f. O + F + Ne = __________
g. Si + S + Ar = ___________
h. Be + C + Al = ___________

Complete the math problem using atomic numbers.

i. ____ + _____ + ______ = 30
j. ____ + _____ + ______ = 40
k. ____ + _____ + ______ = 50


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Investigation: Determining the Best Protection from UV

Environment and Climate Change Canada


  • UV meter(s)
  • pencil and pad
  • three (3) different types of fabric (e.g. cotton, synthetic, silk) in the same colour
  • three (3) different colours of fabric of the same type and weight (e.g. black, white, and red cotton)
  • three (3) pairs of sunglasses
  • several leaves and/or types of shade (e.g., buildings, tree(s), umbrella)
  • calculator


  1. Choose a day when the UV Index is forecast to be 6 or greater.
  2. Identify variables and assign to groups, each with their own UV meter.
  3. Make predictions about which materials or shade give the best protection against UV.
  4. Put the samples in a random order.
  5. Take a UV reading with the UV meter in direct sunlight and record the value.
  6. Place each sample, one at a time, on the UV meter over the sensor. Ensure that the sensor is completely covered. Do not touch the sensor with your fingers. To sample types of shade, move the UV meter from direct sunlight to the designated shaded area before taking the reading.
  7. Wait a minute for the UV meter to adjust between samples.
  8. Calculate the percentage of UV transmitted through each type of fabric sunglasses or shade compared to the full sun reading.

UV transmitted (%) = (reading under sample ÷ full sun reading) x 100%
UV reduction (%) = 100% - UV transmitted


  • Which fabrics give the best protection against UV?
  • Which sunglasses give the best protection against UV?
  • What type of leaf or shade gives the best protection against UV?
  • Why is it important to change only one variable at a time?
  • Why should the samples be in a random order?
  • How would variable cloudiness affect the results?


The more of the sky that is blocked by trees and other objects, the lower the amount of UV.

In general, denim and polyester protect better than cotton; tight weaves, better than loose; dark colours, better than white; and heavy fabrics better than light. Sunglasses show approximately how well a pair of sunglasses protects your eyes from UV-B.

Accurate UV testing for sunglasses can only be conducted by an optometrist or ophthalmologist. UV-A is also harmful to the eye. When buying sunglasses, it's wise to check the label for the degree of protection from both types of UV.


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Tsunami Quiz

Natural Resources Canada

Complete each question.

1. A tsunami is always triggered by an earthquake.
a. True
b. False

2. Where did Canada's worst tsunami disaster occur?
a. East Coast
b. West Coast

3. The word tsunami is Japanese for:
a. Giant tidal wave
b. Harbour wave
c. Small wave
d. Ocean current

4. A tsunami is always triggered by a natural disturbance.
a. True
b. False

5. The 1929 Grand Banks of Newfoundland tsunami was generated by:
a. An earthquake
b. Volcano
c. Landslide
d. A meteor impact

6. Historically, the most common trigger of tsunamis in Canada has been landslides.
a. True
b. False

7. A tsunami is related to tides. That is why it is called a giant tidal wave.
a. True
b. False

8. An earthquake in the ocean will automatically trigger a tsunami.
a. True
b. False

9. We can find geological evidence of past tsunamis in Canada.
a. True
b. False

10. The worst Canadian tsunami disaster occurred off the coast of Newfoundland.
a. True
b. False

11. Which part of Canada can be most affected by a tsunami?
a. Rivers
b. Streams
c. Lakes
d. Coasts

12. A tsunami can be prevented.
a. True
b. False

13. It is possible to predict how far inland a tsunami wave will reach.
a. True
b. False

14. There are many signs that a tsunami will hit an area when it is approaching a coast.
a. True
b. False

15. Tsunamis are triggered by what?
a. Earthquakes
b. Volcanic eruptions
c. Undersea landslides
d. All of the above

16. Tsunami waves usually reach heights of up to _______ metres.
a. 5
b. 15
c. 30
d. 60

17. Ships far out at sea can detect tsunamis easily and radio ahead with warnings.
a. True
b. False

18. Tsunamis travel radially outward from its epicentre.
a. True
b. False

19. Quickly advancing front waves of incoming tides, found in shallow estuaries, are called:
a. Tidal waves
b. Tidal bores
c. Sea surges
d. Seiches

20. The sea tide draining away from shore is a sign of an approaching tsunami.
a. True
b. False


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Answer Key

Atomic Energy Math

a - 35, b - 109, c- 105, d - 63, e - 12, f - 55, g - 100, h - 48. Possible answers for i - Be + Mg + Si, j - B + P + Ca, k - Mn + Ne + P

Tsunami Quiz

1. b) False - A tsunami can be triggered by a landslide, earthquake, submarine landslide, meteorite impact, man-man explosion or even a structure failure such as a dam.
2. a) East Coast
3. b) Harbour Wave
4. b) False - Sometimes a tsunami can be triggered by a man-made explosion or a structure failure such as a dam collapse.
5. c) Landslide
6. a) True
7. b) False - A tsunami is not related to tides. Tides are caused by the gravitational pull from the moon.
8. b) False - The earthquake has to be strong enough to create a vertical movement in the water column.
9. a) True
10. a) True
11. d) Coasts
12. b) False - It is impossible to prevent an earthquake, meteorite impact or submarine landslide from causing a tsunami to form. However, we can mitigate or prevent the damage caused by tsunamis by relocating cities and building structures away from the coast.
13. a) True
14. b) False - The wave is not easily detected at sea. At the coast, a rapid and unexpected recession of water levels below the expected low tide can occur minutes before the shoreline is struck by a tsunami, and can be the only warning sign along coastlines that are located too far from the earthquake epicentre to have felt the shaking.
15. d) All of the Above
16. c) 30
17. b) False - The waves generated close to the epicentre are relatively small as the motion is absorbed through the entire depth of the water column and are not easily detected. In deep water the wavelength is great and amplitude is subdued.
18. a) True
19. b) Tidal Bores
20. a) True



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